Drug Use and Abuse

Drug Use and Abuse

Language: English

Pages: 512

ISBN: 1285455517

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub


DRUG USE AND ABUSE takes an interdisciplinary approach in its coverage of current drug issues. It weaves psychological, historical, cultural, social, biological, and medical perspectives -- emphasizing the idea that a drug's effects depend not only on its properties, but also on the biological and psychological characteristics of its user. This theme is highlighted throughout, and is prominent in discussions of the individual classes of drugs, as well as in the chapters on pharmacology and psychopharmacology.

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little is known about caffeine effects in children (Hughes & Hale, 1998; Temple, 2009). What research is available suggests that children are not more or less sensitive than adults to caffeine’s action in the body (James, 1991). Children’s use of caffeine is a major concern for two reasons: First, caffeine is very popular among young people, as reflected in the surge in children’s consumption of “high-energy” (high-caffeine) beverages. Survey data indicate that approximately one-quarter of 12- to

generally. Indeed, a popular drink today in a number of clubs is Red Bull and vodka. This popularity led several alcohol beverage producers to market alcoholic energy drinks, although these Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the

A structure of the limbic system thought to be important in the formation of memories. e e The limbic System, Basal Ganglia, and Cerebral Cortex The forebrain also includes three complex systems: the limbic system, the basal ganglia, and the cortex. The aspects of behavior that are most uniquely human, such as complex reasoning, memory, logic, speech, and planning, are largely derived from these structures. The limbic system includes several structures in the interior of the forebrain. One

Phase 3 clinical trials: controlled and open studies of 1,000 or more patients monitored for drug effectiveness and for adverse reactions; data used for determining doses and labeling requirements 3 years ↓ FDA review/approval 1–2 years ↓ Post-marketing testing 1–2 years Source: Adapted from information in Rowberg (2001, p. 13) and Walters (1992, p. 334). Copyright 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic

reinforcement and punishment. ● An extremely important way to learn about drug use is self-administration studies. ● The effects of delay of consequences on behavior may be at least part of the explanation for continued drug use by humans in the face of negative consequences. ● Two methods of learning about drug effects are drug discrimination and conflict paradigm studies. ● A lot of knowledge that we have today in psychopharmacology is the result of experiments with nonhuman animals,

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