Preparing To Teach Writing: Research, Theory, and Practice

Preparing To Teach Writing: Research, Theory, and Practice

James D. Williams

Language: English

Pages: 424

ISBN: 0805841644

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub


Preparing to Teach Writing: Research, Theory, and Practice, Third Edition is a comprehensive survey of theories, research, and methods associated with teaching composition successfully. The primary goal is to provide practicing and prospective teachers with the knowledge they need to be effective teachers of writing and to prepare them for the many challenges they will face in the classroom.

Overall, the third edition of Preparing to Teach Writing is clearer and more comprehensive than the previous editions. It combines the best of the old with new information and features. The discussions and references to foundational studies that helped define the field of rhetoric and composition are preserved in this edition. Also preserved is most of the pedagogical apparatus that characterized the first two editions; research and theory are examined with the aim of informing teaching.

New in the Third Edition:
*a more thorough discussion of the history of rhetoric, from its earliest days in ancient Greece to the first American composition courses offered at Harvard University in 1874; *a major revision of the examination of major approaches to teaching writing--current-traditional rhetoric, new rhetoric, romantic rhetoric, writing across the curriculum, social-theoretic rhetoric, postmodern rhetoric, and post-postmodern rhetoric--considering their strengths and weaknesses;
*an extension of the discussion of strengths and weaknesses of major approaches to its logical conclusion--Williams advocates an epistemic approach to writing instruction that demonstrably leads to improved writing instruction when implemented effectively;
*a more detailed account of the phonics--whole language debate that continues to puzzle many teachers and parents;
*a new focus on why grammar instruction alone does not lead to better writing, the difference between grammar and usage, and how to teach grammar and usage effectively;
*an expanded section on Chicano English that now includes a discussion of Spanglish;
*more information on outcome objectives; the Council of Writing Program Administrators' statement of learning outcomes for first-year composition courses has been included to help high school teachers better understand how to prepare high school students for college writing, and to help those in graduate programs prepare for teaching assistantships in first-year composition courses; and
*a more comprehensive analysis of assessment that considers such important factors as the validity, reliability, predictability, cost, fairness, and politics of assessment and the effects on teaching of state-mandated testing, and also provides an expanded section on portfolios.

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but they generally fail to solidify the social bonds necessary to make collaboration succeed. Grades are generally individual rewards for achievement that can actually work against bonding. For the bonding stage, therefore, it is important to consider alternative rewards that will motivate students to compete seriously as groups. Ingenuity is invaluable here because the rewards will vary, depending on the personal inclinations of individual teachers and the degree of freedom allowed by districts

time, during which students could engage in a “play activity.” Computers and educational software, of course, now allow students more easily to turn play activities into learning activities. Token economics seem to be extremely effective as motivators and thus probably would prove quite valuable in establishing a reward system to enhance group bonding. Yet some parents and administrators frown on token economies. They feel uncomfortable with the idea of encouraging competition among students and

appropriate mental representation in speaker and hearers. Additional encounters with utterances of gull, furthermore, will modify the child’s existing phonetic representation, shifting it closer to the adult representation (although in some cases it never will match exactly). In the case of a word like house, which has more complex levels of meaning, there will be a primary mental representation signified by certain semantic features associated with a building of a certain kind used for certain

correction with regard to phonemic representations. The difference is understandable when we consider that people process language for meaning and that certain grammatical distinctions, such as the correct past-tense form of irregular verbs, have no bearing on meaning. The fact that the past-tense form of hold is held rather than holded can be attributed to historical accident, and no one listening to the child in the Clark and Clark scenario would fail to comprehend the child’s statements.

and exchange messages regarding their work. Anecdotal evidence suggests that these Web sites have a measurable benefit: Students spend more time working on their writing, reading the work of other students, and engaging in discussions about their writing. The Internet has indeed proven to be one of the more effective tools in integrating reading and writing. 6 Grammar and Writing WHY IS GRAMMAR IMPORTANT? Most English and language arts instructors are required to teach grammar at some point,

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