The Political Economy of Narcotics: Production, Consumption and Global Markets

The Political Economy of Narcotics: Production, Consumption and Global Markets

Julia Buxton

Language: English

Pages: 257

ISBN: B019TLO024

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub


For nearly a century, regimes around the world have upheld a prohibitionist stance toward narcotics. The US has led this global consensus, enforcing recognition of international narcotics conventions and laws. Vast resources are pumped into the “war on drugs.” But in practice, prohibition has been an abject failure. Narcotics use continues to rise, while technology and globalization have made a whole new range of drugs available to a vast consumer market. Where wealth and demand exist, supply continues to follow. Prohibition has criminalized social groups, impeded research into alternative medicine and disease, promoted violence and gang warfare, and impacted negatively on the environment and ultimately has failed to stem consumption and production. The alternative is a humane policy framework that recognizes the incentives to produce, traffic and consume narcotics.

CONTENTS
Introduction
1. Intoxicating Substances in Historical Perspective
2. The Drift to Regulation and the Idea of Prohibition
3. From Regulation to Control
4. The Beginnings of International Drug Control
5. The Post War International Drug Control Regime
6. Trends in Drug Consumption
7. Trends in Cultivation and Production
8. Accounting for Failure: The Problem of Prohibition
9. Accounting for Failure
10. Institutions and Policy: The Political Impact of Drugs and Drug Control
11. HIV/AIDS and Intravenous Drug Use
12. International Drug Control and HIV/AIDS
13. Cultivation and Drug Production: The Environmental Costs
14. Anti-Drug Policies and the Environment: The Role of Chemical Fumigation
15. The New Magic Bullet: Bio-Control Solutions
16. A Note on Hemp

On Speed: The Many Lives of Amphetamine

Romancing Opiates: Pharmacological Lies and the Addiction Bureaucracy

Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients: Development, Manufacturing, and Regulation (Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences)

The Drug Book: From Arsenic to Xanax, 250 Milestones in the History of Drugs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

of crops such as yucca and maize. Critics of Glyphosate fumigation pointed to three aspects of the spraying campaign to account for the problems reported. First, aerial dispersion of the herbicide was conducted at an altitude of 15 metres or less in the case of coca and 30 metres or less for opium poppies. The risk to pilots of being shot down by insurgents at this height was low, with the danger increasing in line with a fall in altitude. Critics argued that spraying at this height contravened

2002; Streatfeild 2000). Before the cocaine market could develop, a central problem in the production process had to be overcome. Unlike opium, which was durable in transit, coca leaves rotted on transhipment from the Andes to manufacturing centres in Two Europe and America. To overcome this, American and German pharmaceutical companies invested in coca paste manufacturing facilities in Latin America. This enabled them to complete the first stage of cocaine manufacture overseas. As it requires

linked to four factors. The most important was the constitutional separation of power between federal and state government. This limited the authority of the federal administration to foreign policy, interstate commerce and revenue-raising measures such as taxation. All remaining powers, including policing, criminal and civil law and the regulation of trade and transport, fell under the jurisdiction of the individual states. The states zealously guarded their legislative autonomy, particularly

guide to some of the key writings and analyses that have been conducted, thereby allowing readers to follow up in any area covered that they find to be of particular interest. While there is a large body of work on drugs, this book aims to break new ground in integrating the study of history, ideology, institutions and policy. 1 | Intoxicating substances in historical perspective The role of drugs in global society People have ingested naturally-occurring intoxicating and hallucinatory

with the application of AD persisted. A serious challenge related to the sequencing of AD with illicit crop eradication programmes. The success of the Thai AD programme was linked to its pragmatism. Eradication was introduced only when alternatives for cultivators existed. The Thai authorities accepted household use of opium by cultivating groups such as the Meo, Hmong and Karen and cultivation for domestic use was tolerated (Mansfield 1999; Renard 2001). By contrast, in the AD projects

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